When one of their sufferers additionally developed this most cancers, the medical doctors determined that each one sufferers with end-stage kidney failure related to using Chinese herbs should be checked for cancer of those organs. By removing these organs, the doctors hoped to stop most cancers from developing in their sufferers. Thirty-nine of the 43 sufferers agreed to endure the preventive surgical procedure. Of these patients, 46% of them already had cancerous growths within the removed tissues. In addition, 19 of the remaining 21 patients had abnormal growths in the urinary system. The investigators additionally analyzed DNA samples taken from the kidneys and ureters of every patient.