In May 2020, researchers at MIT published a examine exhibiting that EV producers may profitably sell second-life batteries to “solar-plus-storage” builders, causing information mentions to spike. Kia and SK Innovation then announced a partnership across the circular economic system of EV batteries in September 2020, providing another boost. EVs comprise 1000’s of individual battery cells that make up the vehicle’s battery pack. However, when the packs attain their end of life, they sometimes still hold a major amount of charge, making them appropriate for a “second life” of 5-7 years as grid storage elements. In February 2021, tens of millions of Texas residents had been left without power for days when a winter storm caused electrical grid failure throughout the state.